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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Proving employment discrimination is no easy task. Over time, courts have developed an analytical method for evaluating such claims. Proving Employment Discrimination With “Indirect” or “Circumstantial” Evidence When a plaintiff alleges employment discrimination based on indirect, or circumstantial, evidence, courts employ the “burden-shifting” framework set out in McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792 […]

In Sosa v. Rockland County Community College, 2017 WL 3105872 (SDNY July 20, 2017), the court dismissed plaintiff’s national origin discrimination (failure to promote) claim. “To establish a prima facie case of race or national origin discrimination under Title VII, a plaintiff must show that: (1) [s]he belonged to a protected class; (2) [s]he was […]

In Bentivegna v. People’s United Bank, No. 214CV599ADSGRB, 2017 WL 3394601 (E.D.N.Y. Aug. 7, 2017), the court denied defendants’ motion for summary judgment on plaintiff’s gender-based hostile work environment claims. The law: To establish a hostile work environment claim under federal and New York State law, a plaintiff must demonstrate that the conduct at issue […]

In Stabler v. Congregation Emanu-El of the City of New York, No. 16 CIV. 9601 (RWS), 2017 WL 3268201 (S.D.N.Y. July 28, 2017), the court denied defendants’ motions to dismiss plaintiff’s claims of (e.g.) age discrimination, disability discrimination, and hostile work environment. Defendants based their motion to dismiss on the “ministerial exception”. The court summarized the […]

In Le v. New York State, No. 1:16-CV-1517, 2017 WL 3084414 (N.D.N.Y. July 18, 2017), the court discussed and applied the “continuing violation” doctrine/exception under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (I addressed other aspects of this case, including the court’s dismissal of plaintiff’s “perceived as Muslim” discrimination claim, here.) The court summarized […]

In Brooks v. City of Utica, No. 16-cv-1427, 2017 WL 3242273 (N.D.N.Y. July 28, 2017), the court ruled on claims asserted by plaintiff – a firefighter-paramedic and practicing Nazirite – of discrimination based on religion, retaliation, failure to accommodate religious beliefs, and hostile work environment. Plaintiff’s religious observance as a Nazirite required him to keep […]

In Russell v. Cty. of Rockland, No. 15CV4296, 2017 WL 3189873 (S.D.N.Y. July 26, 2017), the court granted defendant’s motion for summary judgment on plaintiff’s hostile work environment sexual harassment claims under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the New York State Human Rights Law. The court summarized the law: In order […]

Here is the United States’ amicus brief in Zarda v. Altitude Express (2d Cir. 15-3775 July 26, 2017), in which the government argues that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 should not be interpreted to cover employment discrimination based on on employee’s sexual orientation. The government argues, inter alia: The question presented is not […]

In Brantman v. Fortistar Capital, Inc., No. 15-CV-4774 (NSR), 2017 WL 3172864 (S.D.N.Y. July 22, 2017), the court, inter alia, granted defendant’s motion for summary judgment on plaintiff’s Title VII retaliation claim. Plaintiff, while reviewing and cataloging boxes of files and documents belonging to defendant’s recently-retired general counsel, “found a DVD in a plastic case […]

In Le v. New York State, No. 1:16-CV-1517, 2017 WL 3084414 (N.D.N.Y. July 18, 2017), the court dismissed plaintiff’s Title VII discrimination, hostile work environment, and retaliation claims. Plaintiff – a woman of Asian descent – alleged that “defendant has wrongly sided with, and failed to take corrective action against, plaintiff’s co-workers and supervisors, who […]