In employment law, a “constructive discharge” occurs when an employer intentionally creates an intolerable work atmosphere that forces the plaintiff to quit involuntarily. See Andersen v. Rochester City Sch. Dist., 481 Fed.Appx. 628, 632 (2d Cir.2012); see also Walsh v. Scarsdale Union Free School District, 2019 WL 1316486 (S.D.N.Y. 2019) (“In addition to an objectively…Read More Threats of Termination & Constructive Discharge
One type of personal injury (negligence) claim is the so-called “negligent security” claim – which is itself a type of “premises liability” claim. In this type of case, the plaintiff asserts that the property owner or landlord failed to take necessary precautions to prevent harm arising from the alleged failure to provide adequate security. (One…Read More “Negligent Security” Premises Liability Claims in New York
Generally, the anti-discrimination laws – such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – prohibit discrimination against employees and applicants based on certain protected characteristics (as in the case of Title VII, race, color, religion, sex, and national origin). That said, there exists a (limited) exception, where such a characteristic is…Read More The “Bona Fide Occupational Qualification” (“BFOQ”) in Employment Law
Employment discrimination cases are often resolved by settlement – i.e., a negotiated agreement for the parties to discontinue a case on agreed-upon terms. A settlement can be reached either before or after the commencement of litigation. In many, if not most, cases, the agreement will be reduced to a writing and signed by the parties.…Read More Settling an Employment Discrimination Case: The Agreement
Federal, state, and local anti-discrimination laws prohibit discrimination based on, among other factors, “disability.” That term is, in turn, defined in the statutes themselves. For example, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. § 12101 et seq., defines a “disability” as: “(A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major…Read More Is Obesity a “Disability” Under the Anti-Discrimination Laws?
One doesn’t have to go very far into the Interwebs to find stories, often accompanied by video(s), of people behaving badly. Recent examples include a lawyer’s racist tirade at a midtown deli, and a woman’s racist outburst on a NYC subway train. If – and, let’s face it, when – their employer(s)As always, unless otherwise…Read More Can You Be Fired For Non-Work (Mis)Conduct?
The “Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) is a federal law, codified at 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000ff et seq., that (in a nutshell) “discrimination on the basis of genetic information with respect to health insurance and employment.” In enacting GINA, Congress set forth the following findings: Deciphering the sequence of the human genome and…Read More The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA)
In employment discrimination cases, defendants sometimes argue, in effect, that unlawful discrimination can not have occurred, since the alleged victim and the alleged discriminator/harasser are in the same “protected class.” The law is to the contrary. For example, in Poliard v. Saintilus Day Care Center, Inc., 11-CV-5174, 2013 WL 1346238, at *4 (E.D.N.Y.,2013), the court noted (albeit…Read More Discrimination Where Discriminator and Victim Are in the Same Protected Class
New York’s common-law “faithless servant doctrine” provides that “an agent that breaches its fiduciary duty of loyalty to its principal forfeits its right to compensation for the period of its disloyalty.” Supreme Showroom, Inc. v. Branded Apparel Group LLC, 2018 WL 3148357, at *8 (S.D.N.Y. June 27, 2018). As one court explained: New York law…Read More The “Faithless Servant Doctrine” Under New York Law
If you are a victim of employment discrimination in New York City and are prepared to formally pursue a claim (i.e., proceed beyond pre-filing negotiations), there are several procedural options available to you. These include (but may not be limited to): State Court, Federal Court, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), New York State Division…Read More Employment Discrimination: Filing Options